[14] Frequent heresy trials would be a feature of Rouen life from the 1530-50s, the nascent communities first preacher being forced to flee the kingdom after an order of banishment in 1546. [63] An all Catholic militia was formed, and members of the Parlement who suggested their Huguenot colleagues be allowed to return to their former office were threatened on the street. With more than 70,000 inhabitants, it was one of the most important cities in France , and its capture was consequently a major success for the English army. [9], The nearby town of Dieppe fell to a Huguenot coup on 22 March, and with the outbreak of formal hostilities in April Claude, Duke of Aumale was given special authority in the Normandy region as Lieutenant General with his deputy Jacques de Matignon. [42] The hanging of otherwise non-combatant Huguenots led the royal council to intervene in August, sending Michel de Castelnau to intervene and put a stop to what they felt was excessive brutality. [4] The defence was lined by an army of crossbow men under the command of Alain Blanchard, commander of the crossbows (arbalétriers), and second in command to Guy le Bouteiller, a Burgundian captain and the overall commander. [37] After several days he was compelled to break camp when the garrison of the town was reinforced by the arriving forces of the Seigneur de Morvillier. [27][9] The Huguenots of the town justified their actions in a remonstrance to the Duke of Bouillon later in April citing their concern that the recruiters were operating as agents of the Guise client the baron de Clères. The Siege of Rouen was a key military engagement of the first French Wars of Religion. [63], Despite the damages done to the community the Huguenots of Rouen rebounded quickly, reaching their pre-siege population levels by 1564. [12], Regardless of elite involvement the council soon commissioned Nicolas de l'Isle a Mantire de la Mornau with the responsibility of collecting, weighing and melting down the looted gold plate. On 8 June the English crossed the river and laid siege to Louviers from both banks. [39] He further armed and encouraged the peasantry around the towns of Rouen and Dieppe in the hopes they would fight back against any attempted sorties from Rouen and hamper reinforcement efforts. [42][43] On 15 August a deputy of the city and the Vidame of Chartres headed to England to entreat Elizabeth's support, several weeks later with the fall of Bourges to the Royal Army an urgent appeal was sent to her. [6][8] The Duke of Burgundy, John the Fearless, had captured Paris but did not make an attempt to save Rouen and advised citizens to look after themselves. John Page's The Siege of Rouen is an eyewitness narrative account of Henry V's siege of Normandy's capital in 1418-19. John Page's The Siege of Rouen is an eyewitness narrative account of Henry V's siege of Normandy's capital in 1418-19. [42][44] While more had been intended one of the 6 ships the English used to transport troops up the river to Rouen had struck a sandbar and was quickly intercepted by Charles de Montmorency-Damville. [42] Any Catholic services had already ceased in the city during the month of June. [37] Aumale began a siege, but having only 3000 men to his command and no siege guns, his bombardment of the town was ineffectual. The royal army outnumbering Condé's failed to prevent a linkup between his force and German mercenary reinforcements brought across France by François de Coligny d'Andelot but were able to pre-empt his march on Paris leading to him turning North instead, hoping to link up with the English who had the funds he critically needed to pay his troops. The fall of Rouen would set the stage for the main battle of the war at Dreux several months later. [30] Those Catholic members of the Council of 24 were allowed to continue to hold office, the largely Catholic Parlement continued to sit and a soldier who had injured the Prior of the Celestines during the coup was executed. The city eventually surrendered, because the English troops prevented food from being brought in. [62] As late as the 1580s the Huguenots would find their 1562 iconoclasm blamed for plague. On 1 March 1562 while travelling from his estates at Joinville to Paris, Francis, Duke of Guise committed a Massacre of Huguenot worshippers in the town of Wassy. [41], The authorities of Rouen retaliated to these moves, with the remaining leading Catholics in the city either forced to convert to Protestantism or being imprisoned, the property of those who had fled now seized by the city. The text is unique in English verse of the fifteenth century in providing a first-hand narrative of a significant event in contemporary warfare. [13] This continued through the reign of Henry II and Francis II, however with the latter's early death the regency of Catherine de' Medici for her young son Charles IX offered a new policy of limited toleration. Get this from a library! [39], Meanwhile Protestant reinforcements continued to make their way into the city of Rouen in preparation for a renewed siege later in the year. [48][51] While the merchants and bourgeois of the city were keen to accept such an offer, the military commander Montgomery, backed by the cities artisans and refugees from elsewhere in Normandy rejected her advances. When he was staying at Gravelines, waiting for the propitious winds to take him to England to support the rebels and boost the morale, the news of the capture of William I of Scotland reached him. [48] Though he would be attended to by the famous surgeon Ambroise Paré he could not be saved and he would finally die of his wound on 17 November. [55] Fearful of what was to come some of the cities leaders fled in the dark of the night or on boats down the Seine. [10], Rouen's Parlement and elite more generally were dominated by moderate Catholics, as such upon the issuing of the Edict of Saint-Germain in Jan 1562 that granted limited toleration to Protestant worship, the Rouen Parlement would be the first to ratify it, whilst the Paris Parlement resisted until March. [4][5], To besiege the city, Henry decided to set up four fortified camps and barricade the River Seine with iron chains, completely surrounding the city,[7][4] with the English intending to starve out the defenders. [21] Fearing the potential violence of both the Duke of Guise and his Calvinist enemy the Prince of Condé being present in the city, Catherine ordered them both to vacate, but only Condé obeyed. [10] Over the months of April and May much of the urban centres of Normandy would fall to those opposing the crown including Le Havre, Vire and Rouen. Each hoodie is printed on-demand, ships within 1 - 2 business days, and comes with a 30-day money-back guarantee. Seen here from the Hill of St Catherine, Rouen, the location of the Siege of Rouen (29 July 1418 – 19 January 1419, is a city on the River Seine in Normandy, France. [5] By 1562 the community had reached a strength of 15,000 members, making it a sizeable minority in the town, particularly among artisans. Artwork from a 15th-century French book depicts the English siege of Rouen, France, in 1418–19. [27] Fearful that any raised troops would be used against them the Huguenots of the town set upon them killing le Gras and wounding Maze who managed to escape the town. [4] From about 1415, Rouen had been strengthened and reinforced by the French and it was the most formidably defended place that the invaders had yet faced. [56] The Spanish ambassador Chantonnay estimated that a thousand died in the sacking. [4] Protestantism had come to the city in the 1520s as an unstructured movement, gaining a cohesive form with the invitation of a Calvinist preacher to the community in 1557. [63] Once the royal administration had moved on from the city the local authorities went further, disarming all Huguenots in the town and mandating a special tax for Protestants to pay to fix the damage in the wall. [20] This done he ignored the regent Catherine's demands to come to court and explain himself, going instead to Paris where he received a heroes welcome for his actions. One, the Chronicon Henrici Quinti, is a chronicle of Henry V’s actions during the Lancastrian War, and the second … [12] Those 3 Catholic Conseillers-Échevins ceased attendance of the Council of 24 leaving the Huguenots in more total political control and with a reduced council until the July elections. [15] With a Parlement order of execution for any Calvinist minister arrested, and the seizing of the property of anyone found to be hosting an assembly many converts chose to flee to Geneva prior to 1559. The Siege of Rouen 22 July-14 August 1174 What was Henry the Young King occupied in in the summer of 1174? The Royal (Catholic) army left the area of Paris in July 1562. Title: John Page, The Siege of Rouen [Page SRouen] Bibliographical References: IMEV 297, 979; Manual 5.XIII.74. [38], With the failure of the direct siege and the continued absence of the main royal army Aumale changed tactics, beginning a campaign of harassment and trying to counteract forays from the town. [60] On 28 July Le Havre was finally reconquered finishing the re-establishment of French control. Known to the Romans as Rotomagus, the city first became important in the 3rd century ce, when Christianity was The siege of Rouen, July 1418–January 1419 Part I Posted on January 21, 2020 Early in June 1418 Henry V joined his army at Bec-Hellouin and advanced to the Eure. [12] Further reports of the iconoclasm being conducted in bands also suggest a degree of organisation. [59][57], With matters temporarily settled between the rebels and the crown, a unified front was created to expel the English who had occupied the towns of Le Havre and Dieppe. [33] The total value came to 57,934 Livres and would be used to pay for the costs of garrisoning and defending the city, though it only provided enough for a months wages. The Siege of Rouen was a key military engagement of the first French Wars of Religion. The Siege of Rouen (December, 1591 – May, 1592) was an unsuccessful Henry's attempt to capture Rouen, the historical capital city of Normandy, in northern France on the River Seine (present-day Upper Normandy, France), between the combined French, English and Dutch forces of Henry IV of France, against the troops of the Catholic League of France commanded by André de Brancas, Amiral de … Henry V refused to let them pass through the English lines, so … [50] With his death leadership of the siege effort passed to the Duke of Guise. [48] After 5 days of assault a breach was achieved on 26 October with mining and explosive charges creating a hole in the wall large enough for a horse to ride through. [57] Having lost Montmorency as a prisoner and their other leader Jacques d'Albon, Seigneur de Saint André on the field of Dreux, Guise was now left in sole command of the crowns war effort, and despite Catherines desire for a negotiated settlement sought a decisive engagement with a victory at Orléans. [8] On Christmas Day 1418, King Henry allowed two priests to give food to the starving people, but the day soon ended and the people went back to dying miserably in the ditch. The account of the Siege of Rouen has been preserved for us in the accounts of two men in Henry V’s army. Originally published by Camden Society, London, 1876. The presence of thousands of men, horses and other animals in close proximity together, along with the waste they produced, meant that the conditions were ripe for infection. [6], The growth of Calvinism in the city inspired a reactive change in the towns more hardline Catholic population, with the Rouen Confraternity of the Holy Sacrament established in the city in 1561 to defend transubstantiation from the ideological attacks it was increasingly being subject to. In his campaigns to capture Normandy during the Hundred Years’ War , Henry V of England besieged and took the city of Rouen . [9] Coupled with the event of the previous September in which Pierre Quitard of Bourges was executed in Rouen for possessing a list of the towns 400 leading Huguenots there was fear that this presaged a similar massacre in Rouen. [41] Further the destruction of church property was to be punishable by the forfeit of all property. [9][8] Even the English felt sorry for the starving people. [34], The fallout of the iconoclasm arrived over the following days with first leading Catholic merchants and priests departing the city and then on 10 May the Parlement departing, declaring it no longer safe. Download this stock image: Siege of Rouen (July 1418 – January 1419). Rouen, port city and capital of Seine-Maritime département, Haute-Normandie région, northwestern France. [7][10] Rouen became the main English base in northern France, allowing Henry to launch campaigns on Paris and further south into the country. [28] In the later partisan account of the Histoire Ecclesiastique the Huguenots would assert that he had been plotting their extermination and their actions had been to forestall this, however it is notable that this occurred during a wave of town coups across France. [12] The letter would however go on to point out that the act must demonstrate divine displeasure with the display of idolatry, providing a degree of tacit endorsement. The siege of Rouen (29 September-26 October 1562) was a major Catholic success early in the First War of Religion, but was marred by the death of Antoine de Bourbon, king of Navarre, one of the most important Catholic leaders. [citation needed], Despite several sorties led by the French garrison, this state of affairs continued. [8] Henry would not allow the people to leave the siege line, and so the starving, expelled people of Rouen were forced to live in the ditch dug near the city wall for its protection. [61], After the fall of Rouen the rump Parlement of Louviers returned to the city, re-establishing itself. Daniel E. Thiery explains how the medieval mind justified such actions. If you find our videos helpful you can support us by buying something from amazon. [11] Meanwhile the Council of 24 the chief governmental apparatus of the town itself was divided, its 7 elected Conselliers-Échevins split between 4 Calvinists and 3 Catholics. When the English reached Rouen, the walls were defended with 60 towers, each containing three cannons and 6 gates protected by barbicans. [19], It was in this context of religious tension in Rouen that national events would propel matters into open violence. It was a major event in the Hundred Year's War, when English forces of Henry V captured the city from the Norman French. [51], On 21 October, a week after assuming command the Duke of Guise ordered an all out assault on the cities walls. The Siege of Rouen (December 1591 – May 1592) was an unsuccessful attempt by Henry IV of France to capture Rouen, the historical capital city of Normandy. [51] They proposed instead a counter offer which included a provision that all Protestant ministers in the city be allowed to remain, which was unacceptable to the besiegers. [47], On 13 October while inspecting the siege trenches Navarre was mortally wounded by a musket shot to his shoulder. The Siege of Rouen: A poem Pages 1-46 The Historical Collections of a Citizen of London in the Fifteenth Century. On May 8, the siege of Orleans was broken, and the English retreated. Henry spent much of 1591 attempted to gain support from the Protestant powers of Europe. [30], On 19 April the Duke of Bouillon arrived in front of the city hoping to talk down the rebels, he was however unable to do so and frustrated left his lieutenant Charles de Bacqueville-Martel in the city and departed. [36] The Duke of Aumale himself arrived at the gates of Rouen on 28 May and summoned the city to yield to him but the rebels refused. [John Page; Herbert Huscher] [46][42] Outside of its walls the city was principally defended by the Fort Sainte Catherine which commanded access from the South East and overlooked the town. The Siege of Rouen began in earnest in late July of 1418. The Siege of Rouen - Volume 17. page 28 note a Onto the Sonday after Newe zere daye.B. John Page's Siege of Rouen; kritische Textausgabe nebst ausführlicher Einleitung, Anmerkungen, Glossar und zwei Kartenbeilagen,. At the time of the Siege of Rouen (July 1418 – January 1419), the city had a population of 70,000, making it one of the leading cities in France, and its capture crucial to the Normandy campaign during the Hundred Years' War. John Page’s ‘The Siege of Rouen’ is an eyewitness narrative account of Henry V’s siege of Normandy’s capital in 1418–19. [31], Inside the town a fraught dynamic quickly developed between the moderate rebels and those who wished to go further, a split in part on lines of class between the elders and the artisan converts. [28] On the night of 15 April the towns Huguenots acted, first seizing the convent of the Celestines, then the town hall before besieging Estoubeville in his chateau. [42] Finally on 20 September the Treaty of Hampton Court was finalised between the Prince of Condé and Elizabeth with Le Havre being offered to the English in return for a 6000 man relief force for the towns of Rouen and Dieppe. Journal of the Siege of Rouen, 1591 (Classic Reprint) [Coningsby, Thomas] on Amazon.com. [52] At this time, laughing off the protestations of the Duke of Guise and Anne de Montmorency, Catherine came to the fort to confer with the two captains and survey the city. [8] The city expelled more than 12,000 of the poor to save food. [8][9] This influence was however counterbalanced in the Calvinist Governor of Normandy the Duke of Boullion. Military campaign launched by Henry V of England (1386-1422) against the French - ERGMHC from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. [29] The Catholics of Rouen had been caught completely by surprise, and soon power would be consolidated with Huguenot control of the gates and a Protestant dominated night watch. [30], The rebel elite did not announce allegiance to Condé but rather to the King, justifying their rebellion on preventative grounds to avoid a new Wassy. New-year's day, however, was Sunday in 1419; so that the reading in our text may be quite correct. [57] As he marched North into Normandy he was intercepted and brought to battle at Dreux a decisive victory for the crown that forced the rebels to retreat into the city of Orléans. [41] New laws were issued sanctioned the detaining of all heretics, and should they resist arrest, their summary execution. [38], Having successfully subdued Bourges in early September, the Royal Army made the decision to bypass Orléans and begin a second siege of Rouen, aware of the recently signed Treaty with Elizabeth and desiring to pre-empt any English reinforcements from reaching the city. [12], Beginning with the Affair of the Placards in the reign of Francis I, Protestantism was subject to organised persecution in France. Like other cities of the time, Rouen was well protected by a massive wall fitted with many towers. [25], News of the Massacre of Wassy and subsequent actions by the Duke of Guise reached Rouen quickly, inducing a climate of fear and militancy among the towns Huguenots. The negotiations were awkward from the start. [21] The Duke of Guise and his Triumvir allies, having met prior to his entry to Paris on 12 March then headed to Fontainebleau where they took possession of the King and Regent. [43] In the 4 July elections for the Council of 24 the vacant three seats were filled, providing a full Huguenot council. It was during this last that the inhabitants of the town expelled thousands of the poorest inhabitants to save food for the better off. [58] Establishing a siege Guise brought it close to conclusion, before he was assassinated shortly prior to the final assault, allowing Condé, Montmorency and Catherine to establish the compromise Edict of Amboise which brought the first war of religion to a close. [2] The fall of Rouen would set the stage for the main battle of the war at Dreux several months later. [62] It voided the July Council of 24 election on the grounds of excluding Catholics and established a new election, which would see no Huguenot councillors elected, none would ever hold office on the council again. 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