In general algae can be referred to as plant-like organisms that are usually photosynthetic and aguatic, but do not have true roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissue and have simple reproductive structures. of these species are found in fresh water, and those are only found in Its cells contain manifold chromosomes which are clearly seen or observed during the cell division, especially during Mitosis. Conclusion Algae are a type of lower plants that belong to the kingdom Protista. For instance, algae can photosynthesize like plants, and they possess specialized structures and cell-organelles, like centrioles and flagella, found only in animals. Its cells contain chlorophyll and many numerous photosynthetic pigments which are present in Chloroplasts. (2).      Plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves in both groups, (3).      Gametophytic generation is the prominent phase in life cycle in both groups, (4).      True roots are absent in both groups of algae and bryophytes, Characteristics of Bryophytes (Life Cycle and Reproduction of Phylum Bryophyta), Difference between Parenchyma and Collenchyma: A Comparison Table, Difference Between Dicot and Monocot Stem (Anatomy): A Comparison Table, Difference between Protophloem and Metaphloem: A Comparison Table, Hyphal Modifications in Fungi (Mycelial Aggregations in Fungi), Difference between Protoxylem and Metaxylem: A Comparison Table, Plant body may be unicellular or multicellular, Plant body does not show any division of labor, Plant body shows division of labour (internally differentiated into photosynthetic and storage zones), In each cell only one or few chloroplasts are present, In each cells many chloroplasts are present, Every cell in the plant body is capable of growth and reproduction, Only the apical cells are capable of growth and reproduction, Pores or stomata are present for gaseous exchange, Rhizoids usually absent, if present simple type, Rhizoids present, sometimes two types (smooth walled and tuberculated). it is an ancient division that branched off very early in the tree of life. Many algae reproduce sexually. Listed below are some of the general characteristics of algae. There is only one class and two subclasses in the Division. is Division-level classification, as with kingdom-level classification, is tenuous for algae.   Presence of motile flagellated antherozoids in both groups, (14). The other 98% are in the ocean. Unicellular algae occur most frequently in water, especially in plankton. Most of the evolutionary biologists believe that bryophytes were originated from Algae.   Both groups possess pectin in their cell wall, (11). of red algae outweighs the total biomass of brown algae (phaeophyceae: For example, some phycologists place the classes Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, and Xanthophyceae in the division Chromophyta, whereas others place each class in separate divisions: Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta, and Xanthophyta. They inhabit in both freshwater … Even though bryophytes are well adapted for the land life they require the presence of water for the completion of their life cycle. Most of euglenoids are autotrophic and photosynthetic. Euglenophyta. Algae often protect themselves from grazers (like snails) by producing in the cold. Specific general characteristics of algae are common to plants as well as animals. They can be either unicellular or multicellular. The thallus of multicellular algae usually consists of a stipe, a holdfast, and blades. Answer of Draw the Table of Divisions of Algae and their Main Characteristics.   Flagella of antherozoids are whiplash type in both groups, (15). • 8. Fire algae (Pyrrophyta) Fire algae are unicellular organisms found in salt water environments with … Division Chlorophyta. Like plant cells, some euglenoids are … This post describes the similarities and major difference between algae and bryophytes. For more on Rhodophyta, visit UC Berkeley's ". Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Brown algae, from the phylum Phaeophyta (meaning "dusky plants"), is … Algae are eukaryotic, which means they have a nucleus. In these subclasses, however, are over 10,000 species that have been described. Algae are photosynthetic organisms The food reserves contain sugar, higher alcohol and other complex forms of polysaccharides. The algae comprise of a large heterogeneous assemblage of plants which are diverse in habitat, size, organisation, physiology, biochemistry, and reproduction. The Rhodophyta are distributed worldwide (see, for example, the distribution of Plocamium,) but they grow best in waters The cell walls are composed of cellulose and alginic acid (a complex polysaccharide). Only two percent During photosynthesis, algae produce at least half of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. Their plastids contain two membranes, chlorophyll, al well as accessories pigments of carotenoids and phycobiliproteins. Their plant body is a thallus. They have chloroplasts. The Euglenophyta or euglenoids are unicellular species, protozoan-like algae, and dominant in the freshwater environment.   Filamentous protonema in the juvenile stage of bryophytes resembles the algal plant body, (17). In the warmer tropics grazing by fish and invertebrates (snails, etc.) Many algae are Photoautotrophic in nature and make their own food by the process of Photosynthesis. Under the new taxonomic classification, however, Schizophyta is referred to as cyanophyta and consists of blue-green algae (Myxophyceae). The Rhodophyta are (3).      Gametophytic generation is the prominent phase in life cycle in both groups Morphological features of some representative types of algae are shown in Fig. Euglena are fresh and salt water protists. There are very few single celled red algae. There is only one class and two subclasses in the Division. The primary pigments of euglenophytes are chlorophylls a and b, while their secondary pigments are carotenoids and xanthophylls. between 10-15 ºC. This helps ensure that an entire algal population is not eaten up - at They are often termed as chlorophytes. Algae. (1).      In both groups the plant body is thalloid and undifferentiated. Algae Classification. Algae is the name given to a large and diverse group of oxygenic, phototrophic, eukaryotic microorganisms. The members of phaeophyta belonging to Laminarales are called kelps. Sheets of agar gel are used in genetic research. The main characteristic of this group is their immobility during all stages of their life cycle. However, it has been observed that many of the immobile algae pass through a flagellated stage in their life cycle. grazing is severe. put together (Goff, Lectures 1999). Ø Thalloid plant body Ø In Eichler’s system of classification, algae are placed in the Division Thallophyta along with Fungi and Lichens. Primarily, algae are not highly differentiated i… Both of these factors allow the Rhodophyta Algae can be multicellular or unicellular. This belief is strongly supported by the similarities of many characters in algae and bryophytes. The three main types of algae are green algae, red algae, and brown algae, while the three main divisions of division Embryophyta are mosses, hornworts, and liverworts. There is none. however, are over 10,000 species that have been described. kelps etc.) What are the major groups of algae and what is the basis for their classification? The term \"algae\" covers many different organisms capable of producing oxygen through photosynthesis (the process of harvesting light energy from the sun to generate carbohydrates). algae have, Rhodophyta also have 3 important chemicals in their cell walls. very fast flowing streams. Most of the evolutionary biologists believe that bryophytes were originated from Algae. Sexual reproduction may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous, Sex organs not covered with sterile jacket cells for production, Sex organs are always covered with sterile jacket cells for protection, Gametophytic and sporophytic generations are usually independent, Gametophytic and sporophytic generations are dependent and physically connected, Alternation of generation usually isomorphic, rarely heteromorphic, Alternation of generation always heteromorphic. However, all such atypical organisms are photosynthetic which justifies their inclusion in algae. Ø Algae are autotrophs (synthesize food using light energy) Algae reproduce asexually by cell division and fragmentation. Login; Register; Home (current) Notes & Question Bank. Charophyta include (a) Spirogyra and (b) desmids. Photosynthetic pigments: They possesses chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and small amount of β-carotenoids. Algae exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction. thick, fleshy thalli (bodies). Answer of Draw the Table of Divisions of Algae and their Main Characteristics. (1).      In both groups the plant body is thalloid and undifferentiated. Photoautotrophic algae produce oxygen. (2).      Plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves in both groups much more extreme, and algae are often restricted to cracks and crevices. Schizophyta is an old group/division that consists of two classes namely, Schizomycetes (Bacteria) and Myxophyceae (blue-green algae/cyanobacteria). And secondly, the gametes (. Brown Algae: Phaeophyta. Unlike green algae or Chlorophyta, they lack true starch. Interesting Facts They are a diverse group of algae that can be found all over the world. Characteristics Of Algae • 3. Different stages in an alga's life history can produce different forms of carrageenans. • 5. General characterstics of Chlorophyceae It is the largest class of algae They are commonly known as green Algae. But chlorophyte is actually a division of green algae, which includes both freshwater and marine species. Certain species in the Rhodophyta are particularly well adapted to living their divisions include Cyanophyta, Prochlorophyta, Phaeo- phyta, Chlorophyta, Charophyta, Euglenophyta, Chry- sophyta, Pyrrhophyta, Cryptophyta and Rhodophyta. Firstly, there are very few single celled In these subclasses, Similarities between Algae and Bryophytes. It is an important group of Thallophyta (Gr. Hard encrusting algae (calcified) are also very common in the tropics where Unicellular, colonial or filamentous Chlorophyll a, b Discoid, plate- cup-shaped, spiral or ribbon shaped in Different species Starch, Pyrenoids (contains protein) located in the chloroplasts, Some may store food in the form of oil droplets. • 6. Green algae. particularly well adapted to low light levels, and the Antarctic species The division is characterized by the following : The division comprises of most primitive […] Examples are Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, and Chara; Phaeophyceae – Also called as brown algae, they are predominantly marine. They are unicellular photosynthetic flagellated algae. There is three main Algae classification: Chlorophyceae – These are called green algae, due to the presence of pigments chlorophyll a and b. They can also occupy on rocks, soils, vegetation, or moist […] to survive Antarctica's long months of near darkness. In Monterey Bay, California, These chemicals are amorphous (shapeless) mucilages (mucuses) which are Enter your e-mail address. These organisms are not necessarily closely related. Most of the species are filamentous (single row of cells forming hairs). Phaeophyta Characteristics Phaeophyta are the most complex forms of algae. This belief is strongly supported by the similarities of many characters in algae and bryophytes. ... • 4. Thallos — a sprout; phyton — a plant), the primitive and simplest division of the plant kingdom. However, certain features unite them, while distinguishing them from the other major group of photosynthetic organisms: the land plants. Both algae and bryophytes lack a vascular system. The terms “Algae ” was coined by C. Linnaeus which means ‘sea weeds’. Most of the algae inhabit the aquatic environment, either freshwater or marine habitats. The word algae represents a large group of different organisms from different phylogenetic groups, representing many taxonomic divisions. Algae are photosynthetic microorganisms that perform photosynthesis and produce oxygen (O2) and consume carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Based on their general features, algae are grouped into Kingdom Protista. are adept at energy storage. Give an example form each group green, yellow, brown, red, blue-green, classified for their color, method of reproduction, and form in which their food reserves are stored; volvox, diatom, giant kelp, sea grapes, cyanobacteria Antarctica has two erect and one encrusting algae as far as Bryophytes are the most primitive land plants. 78 ºS of the equator. Algae of the division Chlorophyta possess green chlorophyll pigments and … 5.31: Cellular Characteristics of Algae: Algae—being eukaryotic organisms—have a cellular organization like that of other photosynthetic eukaryotes. (4).      True roots are absent in both groups of algae and bryophytes, (5).      Both groups are autotrophic in nutrition, (6).      In both algae and bryophytes major photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a, b and carotenes, (7).      Vascular tissue is absent in both groups, (8).      Cellulose is chief consistent of cell wall in both groups, (9).      In both groups starch is the reserve food material, (10). This is because they don’t have flagella. They are immediate between aquatic and terrestrial life. The main difference between algae and bryophytes is the division of the plant body; no division of labour is observed in the plant body of algae whereas the plant body of bryophytes internally divides into photosynthetic and storage zones. Besides having the usual cellulose cell walls that most Many filamentous forms, however, have evolved in such a way as to create Algae, singular alga, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. The chloroplasts in algae contain three algal pigments called chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobilins. Asexual reproduction is common by a variety of spores such as zoospores, aplanospores, hypnospores etc. Cryptophyta. According to the records, there are more than 50,000’s known species of Algae and based on their habitat, presence of biological pigments and other characteristics they are classified into seven different types. Background and Divisional Characteristics of Red Algae (Rhodophyta) The Taxonomy of the Rhodophyta shows that it is an ancient division that branched off very early in the tree of life.   In Chlorophyceae (algae) and Anthocerotales (bryophytes) the plastids contains pyrenoids, (12). Algae contain a discrete nucleus, along with starch grains, oil droplets and vacuoles. Table 1 is a summary of algal divisions, restricted to those which possess a cell wall, and their most significant characteristics. which is famous for the enormous brown algae, the total biomass (dry weight)   Water is essential for fertilization in both groups, (16). General Characteristics of Algae Algae are eukaryotic organisms that have no roots, stems, or leaves but do have chlorophyll and other pigments for carrying out photosynthesis. widely used in science and food preparation. The Taxonomy of the Rhodophyta shows that different carrageenans that are indigestible to the herbivore. • 7. This post describes the similarities and major difference between algae and bryophytes. Similarities between Algae … red algae.   Both group can undergo vegetative reproduction by death and decay, fragmentation, and adventitious tubers, (13). What are the Main Characteristics of the Plant Kingdom Kingdom : Plantae of Plant Kingdom Division : Thallophyta (Algae) The plants in this divisions are commonly called algae. Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga. Diatoms (diá-tom-os 'cut in half', from diá, 'through' or 'apart'; and the root of tém-n-ō, 'I cut'.) 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